Moravian instruments, Inc., source: https://www.gxccd.com/art?id=529&lang=409, printed: 19.12.2018 0:54:31

Main page  Products  CCD & CMOS cameras

G4 Mark II cameras
 G4 Mark II cameras inherited all proven design concepts and features from the previous generation, like precise electronics providing uniform frames and extremely low read noise, efficient regulated CCD cooling, reliable mechanical shutter, modular mechanical construction ensuring compatibility with wide variety of accessories including off-axis guider adapters, external filter wheels, Ethernet adapters, guiding cameras etc. But Mark II cameras bring some important enhancements, like much faster download speeds and adjustable (tiltable) telescope adapters.

G4 cameras contain Full-Frame CCD chips OnSemi KAF with 37 × 37 mm detector area. These detectors are equipped with so-called “anti-blooming gate” (ABG), which drains the over-abundant charge from saturated pixels. ABG ensures the round images of bright stars, without disruptive blooming spikes. On the other side, compromising of the CCD linearity by ABG is only negligible. G4 cameras can be used for astrometric and photometric applications as well as ultimate camera for astrophotography.

No matter if your target is reliable scientific data or beautiful images of deep-sky objects, G4 cameras are able to provide both.

G4-16000 camera head

G4-16000 camera head

G4 Mark II Camera Overview

G4 camera head is designed to be easily used with a set of accessories to fulfill various observing needs. G4 cameras do not allow usage of internal filter wheel as they require large 50 × 50 mm filters. External filter wheel is then the only option for G4 camera.

There are two sizes of the external filter wheel available for the G4 cameras:

  • Medium “M” size wheel for 5 square filters 50 × 50 mm

  • Large “L” size wheel for 7 square filters 50 × 50 mm

G4 camera heads are manufactured in two variants, differing in the cooling performance:

  • Standard cooling

  • Enhanced cooling (11 mm thicker due to increased heat sink)

Camera head and numerous accessories comprise imaging system, capable to be tailored for many applications.

Components of G4 Camera system include:

  1. G4 camera head with standard cooling

  2. G4 camera head with Enhanced Cooling (EC) option

    Remark:

    Both variants of camera head are capable to control the External Filter Wheel

  3. External Filter Wheel “M” size (5 positions)

  4. External Filter Wheel “L” size (7 positions)

  5. G0 Guider camera

  6. G1 Guider camera

    Remark:

    G0 and G1 cameras are completely independent devices with their own USB connection to the host PC. They can be used either on G4 OAG or on standalone guiding telescope.

    Both G0 and G1 camera can share the Gx Camera Ethernet Adapter with up to 3 other Gx cameras to be accessed over network.

  7. Canon EOS bayonet adapter for Canon compatible lenses

  8. Off-Axis Guider with M68 × 1 thread

  9. 1.75” dovetail rail for G4 camera head

  10. Gx Camera Ethernet Adapter (x86 CPU)

  11. Gx Camera Ethernet Adapter (ARM CPU)

    Remark:

    Camera Ethernet Adapter allows connection of up to 4 Gx cameras of any type on the one side and 1 Gbps Ethernet on the other side. This adapter allows access to connected Gx cameras using routable TCP/IP protocol over practically unlimited distance.

  12. 5-positions “M” size filter wheel for 50 × 50 mm filters

  13. 7-positions “L” size filter wheel for 50 × 50 mm filters

The G4 cameras are designed to work in cooperation with a host Personal Computer (PC). As opposite to digital still cameras, which are operated independently on the computer, the scientific slow-scan, cooled cameras usually require computer for operation control, image download, processing and storage etc. To operate the camera, you need a computer which:

  1. Is compatible with a PC standard and runs modern 32 or 64-bit Windows operating system.

  2. Is compatible with a PC standard and runs 32 or 64-bit Linux operating system.

    Remark:

    Drivers for 32-bit and 64-bit Linux systems are provided, but the SIPS camera control and image processing software, supplied with the camera, requires Windows operating system.

  3. Support for x64 based Apple Macintosh computers is also included.

    Remark:

    Only certain software packages are currently supported on Mac.

G4 cameras require at last one free USB 2.0 port to communicate with a host PC.

Alternatively, it is possible to use the Gx Camera Ethernet Adapter device. This device can connect up to four Gx cameras of any type (not only G4, but also G0, G1, G2 and G3) and offers 1 Gbps and 10/100 Mbps Ethernet interface for direct connection to the host PC. Because the PC then uses TCP/IP protocol to communicate with the cameras, it is possible to insert WiFi adapter or other networking device to the communication path.

G4 Mark II camera

G4 Mark II Camera Models

G4 series contains the following camera models:

Model CCD chip ABG Color mask Resolution Pixel size Image area Preview download Low-Noise download
G4-9000 KAF-09000 >100× no 3056 × 3056 12 × 12 μm 36.7 × 36.7 mm 4.17 s 5.77 s
G4-16000 KAF-16803 >100× no 4096 × 4096 9 × 9 μm 36.9 × 36.9 mm 7.19 s 10.03 s

CCD detectors

G4 series of CCD cameras are manufactured with “Full Frame” CCD sensors manufactured by On Semiconductor (formerly Kodak).

CCD chip with 4096 × 4096 pixels resolution and 37 × 37 mm area for G4-16000 camera

Almost all Full Frame CCD detector area is exposed to light, which ensures quantum efficiency provided but these sensors. Modern FF CCD detectors are suitable also for scientific applications, even if equipped with so-called Anti Blooming Gate (ABG — a gate, which prohibits blooming of the charge to neighboring pixels when image is over-exposed) with linear enough response to light within the full dynamic range.

Full Frame CCD schematic diagram

“Full Frame” CCD schematic diagram

Model G4-9000

G4-9000 model uses 9 MPx OnSemi KAF-09000 Full-Frame CCD chip.

Resolution 3056 (H) × 3056 (V) pixels
Pixel size 12 μm (H) × 12 μm (V)
Image area 36.7 mm (H) × 36.7 mm (V)
Full well capacity ~110,000 e-
Dark current 5 e-/s/pixel at 25 °C
Dark signal doubling temperature 7 °C

KAF-09000 CCD specifications

KAF-09000 CCD and its quantum efficiency

Model G4-16000

G4-16000 uses 16 MPx OnSemi KAF-16803 Full-Frame CCD chip.

Resolution 4096 (H) × 4096 (V) pixels
Pixel size 9 μm (H) × 9 μm (V)
Image area 36.9 mm (H) × 36.9 mm (V)
Full well capacity ~100,000 e-
Dark current 3 e-/s/pixel at 25 °C
Dark signal doubling temperature 6.3 °C

KAF-16803 CCD specifications

KAF-16803 CCD and its quantum efficiency

Camera Electronics

16-bit A/D converter with correlated double sampling ensures high dynamic range and CCD chip-limited readout noise. Fast USB interface ensures image download time within seconds.

Maximum length of single USB cable is approx. 5 m. This length can be extended to 10 m or 15 m by using single USB hub or active USB extender cable. Up to 5 hubs or active extenders can be used in one connection.

Gx Camera Ethernet Adapter device allows connection of up to four Gx cameras of any type through Ethernet interface and TCP/IP network. Because TCP/IP protocol can be routed, the distance between camera and host PC can be virtually unlimited.

ADC resolution 16 bits
Sampling method Correlated double sampling
Read modes Preview mode
  Low-noise mode
Horizontal binning 1 to 4 pixels
Vertical binning 1 to 4 pixels
Sub-frame readout Arbitrary sub-frame
Computer interface USB 2.0 High Speed
  USB 1.1 Full Speed compatible

Camera electronics specifications

Image download time depends on the CCD chip used in particular camera model. Also the read noise depends on the chip as well as on the read mode.

  • Preview read mode provides system read noise approx. 1 or 2 e- above CCD chip read noise.

  • Low Noise read mode is somewhat slower, but ensures system read noise roughly equal to the manufacturer-specified chip read noise.

Model G4-9000

Gain 1.5 e-/ADU (1 × 1 binning)
  1.7 e-/ADU (other binnings)
System read noise 10 e- RMS (Low noise)
  11 e- RMS (Preview)
Full frame download 5.77 s (Low noise)
  4.17 s (Preview)

G4-9000 electronics specification

Model G4-16000

Gain 1.6 e-/ADU (all binnings)
System read noise 11 e- RMS (Low noise)
  12 e- RMS (Preview)
Full frame download 10.03 s (Low noise)
  7.19 s (Preview)

G4-16000 electronics specification

Notes:

  1. Binning can be combined independently on both axes.

  2. Stated read noise is measured on particular CCD sensor, evaluated during camera design. Actual read noise of different sensors varies among various manufacturing batches, but also within single manufacturing batch. The camera read noise is determined by the sensor itself and the camera manufacturer cannot affect it.

Cooling and power supply

Regulated thermoelectric cooling is capable to cool the CCD chip from 42 to 47 °C below ambient temperature, depending on the camera type. The Peltier hot side is cooled by a fans. The CCD chip temperature is regulated with ±0.1 °C precision. High temperature drop and precision regulation ensure very low dark current for long exposures and allow proper image calibration.

G4 cameras are available in two variants, differing in the cooling performance:

  • Standard cooling cameras achieve regulated temperature difference up to 42 °C under environment temperature.

  • Enhanced cooling cameras can regulate temperature up to 47 °C under environment temperature. Compared to standard variant, enhanced cooling cameras are somewhat bulkier due to bigger heat sink, slightly heavier and somewhat noisier because of more powerful fans.

Comparison of the G4 Mark II standard cooling camera and enhanced cooling version

The camera head contains two temperature sensors — the first sensor measures directly the temperature of the CCD chip package. The second one measures the temperature inside the camera shell.

The cooling performance depends on the environmental conditions and also on the power supply. If the power supply voltage drops below 12 V, the maximum temperature drop is lower.

CCD chip cooling Thermoelectric (Peltier modules)
Standard cooling ΔT 45 °C below ambient maximum
  42 °C below ambient typical
Enhanced cooling ΔT 50 °C below ambient maximum
  47 °C below ambient typical
Regulation precision 0.1 °C
Hot side cooling Air cooling (two fans)
  Optional liquid coolant heat exchanger

Chip cooling specifications

Remark:

Maximum temperature difference between CCD and ambient air may be reached when the cooling runs at 100% power. However, temperature cannot be regulated in such case, camera has no room for keeping the CCD temperature when the ambient temperature rises. Typical temperature drop can be achieved with cooling running at approx. 85% power, which provides enough room for regulation.

Camera construction does not allow usage of both air and liquid cooling. Combined cooling (air with the liquid cooling option) is not available, because such cooling does not work effectively enough with air only nor with water only.

Power supply

The 12 V DC power supply enables camera operation from arbitrary power source including batteries, wall adapters etc. Universal 100-240 V AC/50-60 Hz, 60 W “brick” adapter is supplied with the camera. Although the camera power consumption does not exceed 40 W, the 60 W power supply ensures noise-free operation.

Camera power supply 12 V DC
Camera power consumption 15 W without cooling
  52 W maximum cooling
Power plug 5.5/2.5 mm, center +
Adapter input voltage 100-240 V AC/50-60 Hz
Adapter output voltage 12 V DC/5 A
Adapter maximum power 60 W

Power supply specification

Warning:

The power connector on the camera head uses center-plus pin. Although all modern power supplies use this configuration, always make sure the polarity is correct if other than the supplied power source is used.

Remark:

Power consumption is measured on the input (AC side) of the supplied power adapter. Camera consumes less energy from 12 V power supply than state here.

The camera contains its own power supplies inside, so it can be powered by unregulated 12 V DC power source — the input voltage can be anywhere between 10 and 14 V. However, some parameters (like cooling efficiency) can degrade if the supply drops below 12 V.

G4 camera measures its input voltage and provides it to the control software. Input voltage is displayed in the Cooling tab of the Imaging Camera control tool in the SIPS program. This feature is important especially if you power the camera from batteries.

12 V DC/5 A power supply adapter for G4 camera

12 V DC/5 A power supply adapter for G4 camera

Mechanical Specifications

Compact and robust camera head measures only 154 × 154 × 65 mm (approx. 6 × 6 × 2.6 inches) for the model with standard cooling. Enhanced cooling increases camera depth by 11 mm.

The head is CNC-machined from high-quality aluminum and black anodized. The head itself contains USB-B (device) connector and 12 V DC power plug, no other parts (CPU box, USB interface, etc.), except a “brick” power supply, are necessary. Another connector allows control of optional external filter wheel. Integrated mechanical shutter allows streak-free image readout, as well as automatic dark frame exposures, which are necessary for unattended, robotic setups.

Internal mechanical shutter Yes, blade shutter
Shortest exposure time 0.2 s
Longest exposure time Limited by chip saturation only
Internal filter wheel no
Head dimensions 154 mm × 154 mm × 65 mm (standard cooling)
  154 mm × 154 mm × 76 mm (enhanced cooling)
Back focal distance 33.5 mm (base of adjustable adapters)
Standard cooling head weight 1.6 kg (without filter wheel)
  2.5 kg (with “M” external filter wheel)
  2.8 kg (with “L” external filter wheel)
Enhanced cooling head weight 1.8 kg (without filter wheel)
  2.7 kg (with “M” external filter wheel)
  3.0 kg (with “L” external filter wheel)

Mechanical specification

Remark:

Back focus distance is measured from the sensor to the base on which adjustable adapters are mounted. Various adapters then provide back focal distance specific for the particular adapter type (e.g. Canon EOS bayonet adapter back focal distance is 44 mm).

Stated back focal distance already calculates with glass permanently placed in the optical path (e.g. optical window covering the CCD cold chamber).

Camera without filter wheel

G4 Mark II camera head front view dimensions

G4 Mark II camera head front view dimensions

G4 Mark II camera head side view dimensions

Enhanced cooling variant

G4 Mark II camera head with Enhanced cooling side view dimensions

G4 Mark II camera head with Enhanced cooling side view dimensions

Camera with “L” External filter wheel

G4 Mark II camera head with External filter wheel front view dimensions

G4 Mark II camera head with External filter wheel front view dimensions

G4 Mark II camera head with External filter wheel side view dimensions

The “M” sized External Filter Wheel diameter is smaller (see External Filter Wheel User's Guide), but the back focal distance of all external filter wheels is identical.

Enhanced cooling with External filter wheel variant

Enhanced cooling G4 Mark II camera head with External filter wheel side view dimensions

Enhanced cooling G4 Mark II camera head with External filter wheel side view dimensions

Optional accessories

Various accessories are offered with G4 Mark II cameras to enhance functionality and help camera integration into imaging setups.

External filter wheels

When there is no filter wheel inside the camera head, all electronics and firmware, intended to control it, stays idle. These components can be utilized to control external filter wheel with only little changes. Also the camera front shell can be manufactured thinner, the space for filter wheel is superfluous.

G4 Camera Mark II without filter wheel (left), with M size (center) and L size (right) External filter wheels

G4 Camera Mark II without filter wheel (left), with “M” size (center) and “L” size (right) External filter wheels

Telescope adapters

Usage of many common types of telescope and lens adapters are ruled out by very large sensor used in G4 Mark II cameras. The CCD diagonal dimension of G4 cameras is 52 mm, which is greater than outer dimensions of many adapter kinds. Only the M68 threaded and Canon EOS bayonet adapters are large enough not to cause vignetting.

  • M68 × 1 — adapter with M68 × 1 inner thread and 47.5 mm back focal distance.

  • Canon EOS bayonet — standard Canon EOS lens adapter, preserves 44 mm back focal distance.

All telescope/lens adapters of the G4 Mark II series of cameras can be slightly tilted. This feature is introduced to compensate for possible misalignments in perpendicularity of the telescope optical axis and sensor plane.

The Mark II camera telescope adapters are attached using three “pulling” screws. As the adapter tilt is adjustable, another three “pushing” screws are intended to fix the adapter after some pulling screw is released to adjust the tilt.

Adjusting the telescope adapter tilt (left) and removing tiltable the adapter (right)

Adjustable telescope/lens adapters are attached slightly differently depending if the adapter is attached directly to the camera head (e.g. when camera is equipped with internal filter wheel) or to the External filter wheel case.

  • G4 Mark II adapters are not mounted directly on the camera head. Instead a tilting adapter base, holding the circular spring, is always used.

  • If the External filter wheel is used, the adapted base is not necessary, as the Mark II External filter wheel front plate is already designed to hold the spring and it also contains threads to fix respective adapters.

Mark II External filter wheels are already designed to for adjustable telescope adapters

Mark II External filter wheels are already designed to for adjustable telescope adapters

Off-Axis Guider adapter

G4 camera can be optionally equipped with Off-Axis Guider Adapter. This adapter contains flat mirror, tilted by 45° to the optical axis. This mirror reflects part of the incoming light into guider camera port. The mirror is located far enough from the optical axis not to block light coming to the main camera sensor, so the optics must be capable to create large enough field of view to illuminate the tilted mirror.

G4 OAG adapter

G4 OAG adapter

The G4-OAG offers the M68 × 1 thread on the telescope side. The back focal distance is 61.5 mm.

If the OAG is used on camera without filter wheel, thicker adapter base must be used to keep the Back focal distance and to allow the guiding camera to reach focus.

OAG on G4 camera with thick adapter base

OAG on G4 camera with thick adapter base

OAG guider port is compatible with G0 and G1 cameras. It is necessary to replace the CS/1.25” adapter with short, 10 mm variant in the case of G1 cameras. Because G1 cameras follow CS-mount standard, (BFD 12.5 mm), any camera following this standard with 10 mm long 1.25” adapter should work properly with the G4-OAG.

Attaching camera head to telescope mount

G4 Mark II cameras are equipped with two “tripod” 0.250-20UNC threads on the top side of the camera head. This thread can be used to attach 1.75 inch “dovetail bar” (Vixen standard). It is then possible to attach the camera head, e.g. equipped with photographic lens, directly to various telescope mounts supporting this standard.

1.75" bar for standard telescope mounts

1.75" bar for standard telescope mounts

Spare desiccant containers

The G4 Mark II cameras are supplied with silicagel container, intended to dry the CCD cold chamber. This container can be unscrewed and desiccant inside can be dried in the owen (see the camera User's Manual).

Remark:

This is why the container itself does not contain any sealing, which could be damaged by high temperature in the owen. The sealing remains on the CCD cold chamber instead.

Container shipped with the camera by default does not exceed the camera head outline. It is equipped with a slot for tool (of for just a coin), allowing releasing and also tightening of the container. Containers intended for enhanced cooling cameras are prolonged as the camera thickness is greater in the case of this variant.

Containers for standard and enhanced cooling cameras also in variants allowing tool-less manipulation

Containers for standard and enhanced cooling cameras also in variants allowing tool-less manipulation

It is possible to order spare container, which makes desiccant replacement easier and faster. It is possible to dry the spare container with silicagel and then only to replace it on the camera. Spare container is supplied including the air-tight cap.

Spare container can be supplied also in a variant that allows manipulation without tools. But this container is longer and exceeds camera outline. If the space behind the camera is not critical, this container can make desiccant exchange even easier.

Silicagel container with slot (left) and variant for tool-less manipulation (right)

Silicagel container with slot (left) and variant for tool-less manipulation (right)

Camera head color variants

Camera head is available in several color variants of the center plate. Visit manufacturer's web pages for current offering.

G4 Mark II camera color variants

G4 Mark II camera color variants

Gx Camera Ethernet Adapter

Gx Camera Ethernet Adapter allows connection of up to 4 Gx cameras of any type on the one side and 1 Gbps Ethernet on the other side. This adapter allows access to connected Gx cameras using routable TCP/IP protocol over practically unlimited distance.

The Gx Camera Ethernet Adapter device (left) and adapter with two connected cameras (right)

Gx Camera Ethernet Adapter devices are described in detail here.

Software Support

Powerful SIPS (Scientific Image Processing System) software, supplied with the camera, allows complete camera control (exposures, cooling, filter selection etc.). Also automatic sequences of images with different filters, different binning etc. are supported. With full ASCOM standard support, SIPS can be also used to control other observatory equipment. Specifically the telescope mounts, but also other devices (focusers, dome or roof controllers, GPS receivers etc.).

SIPS also supports automatic guiding, including image dithering. Both “autoguider” port hardware interface (6-wire cable) and mount “Pulse-Guide API” guiding methods are supported. For hi-quality mounts, capable to track without the necessity to guide at last during one exposure, inter-image guiding using the main camera only is available.

SIPS controlling whole observatory (shown in optional dark skin)

SIPS controlling whole observatory (shown in optional dark skin)

But SIPS is capable to do much more than just camera and observatory control. Many tools for image calibration, 16 and 32 bit FITS file handling, image set processing (e.g. median combine), image transformation, image export etc. are available.

SIPS handles FITS files, supports image calibration and processing

As the first “S” in the abbreviation SIPS means Scientific, the software supports astrometric image reduction as well as photometric processing of image series.

SIPS focuses to advanced astrometric and photometric image reduction, but also provides some very basic astro-photography processing

SIPS software package is freely available for download from this www site. All functions are thoroughly described in the SIPS User's Manual, installed with every copy of the software.

Drivers for ASCOM standard as well as native drivers for third-party software are also available (e.g. TheSkyX, MaxIm DL, AstroArt, etc.). Visit the download page of this web site for current list of available drivers, please.

Also INDI drivers for 32 bit and 64 bit Linux running on x86 and ARM are available. Also drivers for TheSkyX package running on macOS are supplied with the camera.

Automatic guiding

SIPS software package allows automatic guiding of the astronomical telescope mounts using separate guiding camera. Proper and reliable automatic guiding utilizing the computational power of Personal Computer (e.g. calculation of star centroid allows guiding with sub-pixel precision) is not simple task. Guiding complexity corresponds to number of parameters, which must be entered (or automatically measured).

The SIPS Guider tool window

The SIPS “Guider” tool window

The “Guiding” tool allows switching of autoguiding on and off, starting of the automatic calibration procedure and recalculation of autoguiding parameters when the telescope changes declination without the necessity of new calibration. Also swapping of the German Equatorial mount no longer requires new autoguider calibration. There is also a graph showing time history of guide star offsets from reference position in both axes. The length of graph history as well as the graph range can be freely defined, so the graph can be adjusted according to particular mount errors and periodic error period length. Complete log of calibration procedure, detected offsets, correction pulses etc. is also shown in this tool. The log can by anytime saved to log file.

An alternative to classic autoguiding is the inter-image guiding, designed for modern mounts, which are precise enough to keep tracking with sub-pixel precision through the single exposure, and irregularities only appear on the multiple-exposure time-span. Inter-image guiding then performs slight mount position fixes between individual exposures of the main camera, which eliminates “traveling” of the observed objects through the detector area during observing session. This guiding method uses main imaging camera, it does not use another guiding camera and naturally does not need neither OAG nor separate guiding telescope to feed the light into it.

Inter-image guiding controls in the Guiding tab of the Imager Camera tool window

Inter-image guiding controls in the Guiding tab of the Imager Camera tool window

Shipping and Packaging

G4 Mark II cameras are supplied in the foam-filled, hard carrying case containing:

  • Camera body with a user-chosen telescope adapter. If ordered, the filter wheel is already mounted inside the camera head and filters are threaded into place (if ordered).

  • A 100-240 V AC input, 12 V DC output “brick” adapter with 1.8 m long power cable.

  • 5 m long USB A-B cable for connecting camera to host PC.

  • USB Flash Drive with camera drivers, SIPS software package with electronic documentation and PDF version of User's Manual.

  • A printed copy of camera User's Manual

G4 cameras are shipped in the foam-filled carrying case (left), larger case is used if camera is ordered with external filter wheel (right)

Image Gallery

Example images captured with G4 cameras.

Object M16 “Eagle Nebula”
Author J. C. Canonne, N. Outters, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain, L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope 0.5 m CDK
Exposure 44.25 hours
Object M16 “Eagle Nebula”
Author J. C. Canonne, N. Outters, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain, L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters HOORGB
Telescope 0.5 m CDK
Exposure 5.25 hours (RGB)

Object SH2-308 planetary nebula
Author J. C. Canonne, N. Outters, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain, L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters RGBHαOIII
Telescope TEC160
Exposure 89 hours

Object NGC5128 “Centaurus A” galaxy
Author J. C. Canonne, N. Outters, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain, L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters LRGBHα
Telescope CDK 20" f/6.8 (500mm/3400mm)
Exposure 42.24 hours

Object surroundings of the star ρ Ophiuchi
Author J. C. Canonne, N. Outters, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain, L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters RGB
Telescope TEC160
Exposure 67.5 hours

Object M83 “Southern Pinwheel” galaxy
Author J. C. Canonne, N. Outters, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain, L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters RGBHα
Telescope CDK 20" f/6.8 (500mm/3400mm)
Exposure 25 hours

Object M8 “Lagoon”
Author J. C. Canonne, N. Outters, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain, L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope TEC160
Exposure 104 hours
Object M8 “Lagoon”
Author J. C. Canonne, N. Outters, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain, L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters RGB
Telescope TEC160
Exposure 5 hours

Object NGC6357
Author J. C. Canonne, N. Outters, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain, L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope TEC160
Exposure 108 hours
Object NGC6357
Author J. C. Canonne, N. Outters, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain, L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters RGB
Telescope TEC160
Exposure 10 hours

Object NGC6334
Author J. C. Canonne, N. Outters, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain, L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope TEC160
Exposure 72 hours

Object NGC3586
Author J. C. Canonne, N. Outters, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain, L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope TEC160
Exposure 103 hours
Object NGC3586
Author J. C. Canonne, N. Outters, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain, L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters RGB
Telescope TEC160
Exposure 4 hours

Object M51 “Whirlpool” galaxy
Author J. C. Canonne, N. Outters, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain, L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters RGBHα
Telescope CDK 20" f/6.8 (500mm/3400mm)
Exposure 25 hours

Object NGC6188
Author J. C. Canonne, N. Outters, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain, L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope TEC160
Exposure 108 hours
Object NGC6188
Author J. C. Canonne, N. Outters, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain, L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters RGB
Telescope TEC160
Exposure 7 hours

Object IC443 “Jellyfish” nebula (mosaic)
Author J.C. Canonne, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain & L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope FSQ106, TEC140, AP155, RH200
Exposure 113 hours

Object “Veil” nebula (mosaic)
Author J.C. Canonne, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain & L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope TEC160 and AP155
Exposure 415 hours

Object IC2944
Author J.C. Canonne, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain & L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope TEC160 f/7
Exposure 101 hours
Object IC2944
Author J.C. Canonne, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain & L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters RGB
Telescope TEC160 f/7
Exposure 5.25 hours

Object NGC7635 “Bubble” nebula, M52 cluster
Author J.C. Canonne, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain & L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope TEC140
Exposure 88 hours

Object M106 galaxy
Author Michael Miller, Warren Keller
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters Astrodon LRGB
Telescope 152mm APM APO

Object NGC2264 “Christmas Tree” nebula
Author Reinhard Wallner
Camera G4-16000
Filters HαRGB
Telescope TEC 160FL
Exposure 13 hours

Object Dentelles-2 nebula
Author Nicolas Outters
Camera G4-16000
Filters SII Hα OIII
Telescope Newton SV400 F3.8
Exposure 37 hours

Object IC1396 “Elephhant Trunk” nebula
Author Pavel Cagas, processed by Martin Myslivec
Camera G4-16000
Filters RGB
Telescope 30cm f/4 Newtonian
Exposure 10 hours

Object M31 “Great Andromeda Galaxy”
Author Pavel Cagas, processed by Martin Myslivec
Camera G4-16000
Filters RGB
Telescope 30cm f/4 Newtonian
Exposure 1.5 hours

Object M42 “Great Orion Nebula”
Author Pavel Cagas, processed by Martin Myslivec
Camera G4-16000
Filters RGB
Telescope 30cm f/4 Newtonian
Exposure 1 hour

Object M45 “Pleiades”
Author Pavel Cagas, processed by Martin Myslivec
Camera G4-16000
Filters RGB
Telescope 30cm f/4 Newtonian
Exposure 1.5 hours

Object “Flame” and “Horse Head” nebulae in Orion
Author Pavel Cagas
Camera G4-16000
Filters RGB
Telescope 30cm f/4 Newtonian
Exposure 1 hour

Object IC1396 “Elephant trunk” nebulosity complex
Author J.C. Canonne, P. Bernhard, D. Chaplain & L. Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope AP155
Exposure 73 hours

Object Sh2-129 “Bat” and OU4 “Squid” nebulae
Author Laurent Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope TEC140 APO + Takahashi CCA 250
Exposure 127 hours

Object M27 “Dumbbell” planetary nebula
Author Frédéric Lambert
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters RGB + narrow-band Hα, OIII
Telescope Takahashi CCA 250 mm f/5

Object IC5067 nebula
Author Frédéric Lambert
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope Officina Stellare UCRC 300

Object M31 Big Andromeda Galaxy
Author Frédéric Lambert
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters RGB
Telescope Takahashi CCA 250 mm f/5

Object M33 galaxy in Triangulum
Author Frédéric Lambert
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters RGB + narrow-band Hα
Telescope Takahashi CCA 250 mm f/5

Object NGC2244 “Rosette” nebula
Author Frédéric Lambert
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope Officina Stellare UCRC 300

Object NGC6888 “Crescent” nebula
Author Frédéric Lambert
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII
Telescope Officina Stellare UCRC 300

Object NGC7635 “Bubble” nebula
Author Frédéric Lambert
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope Takahashi CCA 250 mm f/5

Object IC1805 nebula
Author Laurent Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope Orion Optics/Skymeca 50 cm MDK f/6,8

Object NGC7635 “Bubble Nebula” in Cassiopeia
Author Laurent Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope Orion Optics/Skymeca 50 cm MDK f/6,8

Object IC63 nebula in Cassiopeia
Author Laurent Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters LRGB
Telescope Orion Optics/Skymeca 50 cm MDK f/6,8

Object NGC7380 “Wizadr Nebula” in Cepheus
Author Laurent Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope Orion Optics/Skymeca 50 cm MDK f/6,8

Object NGC7822 star forming region in Cepheus
Author Laurent Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII
Telescope FSQ106ed

Object “North America” and “Pelican” nebulae
Author Laurent Bourgon and Didier Chaplain
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII, OIII a NII
Telescope FSQ106ed
Exposure 65 hours

Object M31 galaxy in Andromeda
Author Philippe Bernhard
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters LRGB
Telescope RH200
Exposure 3 hours

Object NGC6960 “Veil” nebula
Author Laurent Bourgon
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII a OIII
Telescope Orion Optics/Skymeca 50 cm MDK f/6,8

Object NGC7000 mlhovina “Severní Amerika”
Author Michael Miller
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters narrow-band Hα, SII a OIII
Telescope 152mm APM APO

Object NGC6960 “Veil” nebula
Author Michael Miller
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters Astrodon LRGB
Telescope 152mm APM APO

Object NGC6992 “Veil nebula”
Author Michael Miller
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters Astrodon LRGB
Telescope 152mm APM APO

Object M51 “Whirlpool” galaxy
Author Michael Miller
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters Astrodon LRGB
Telescope 152mm APM APO

Object M16 “Eagle” nebula
Author Michael Miller
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters Astrodon LRGB
Telescope 152mm APM APO

Object M16 “Eagle” nebula
Author Michael Miller
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters H-alpha, OIII and SOII narrow-band
Telescope 152mm APM APO

Object M63 “Sunflower” galaxy
Author Michael Miller
Camera G4-16000 + EFW-L-7
Filters Astrodon LRGB
Telescope 152mm APM APO

Object “North America” and “Pelican” nebulae
Author Petr Novak
Camera G4-16000 + EFW4-5
Filters 12nm H-alfa
Telescope Takahashi FSQ 106 ED

Object M31 Great Andromeda Galaxy
Author Pavel Cagas, processed by Martin Myslivec
Camera G4-16000 (cropped to 3k × 3k pixels)
Filters Astronomik LHaRGB
Telescope Orion SPX 250 + Paracorr

Object “North America” and “Pelican” nebulae
Author Martin Myslivec
Camera G4-16000
Telescope Borg 66 ED

Object Field of variable star V729 Aql
Author Pavel Cagas, field composition Vaclav Pribik
Camera G4-16000 (cropped to 3k × 3k pixels)
Filters Clear
Telescope Orion SPX 250 + Paracorr

All images published with permission of their respective authors.