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G2 Mark II cameras
 The cooled G2 series MarkII CCD cameras were developed for imaging under extremely low-light conditions in astronomy, microscopy and similar areas. Design of this series inherits from earlier G2 MarkI cameras but brings some significant enhancements. G2 cameras employ precise electronics providing uniform frames and extremely low read noise limited only by CCD detector itself. Modular mechanical construction allows various camera variants to be combined with rich set of accessories, including telescope adapters, off-axis guider adapters, internal or external filter wheels, Ethernet adapters, guiding cameras etc.

All members of the G2 MarkII series of cooled CCD cameras are designed for low-light imaging applications, requiring very high sensitivity and very low noise and dark current. The G2 Mark II series comprises numerous model, each suitable for a particular application area in astronomical research, astro-photography, microscopy, life-sciences, material research etc.

G2-0400, G2-1600 and G2-3200 models are equipped with Full-Frame, NABG detectors. Their features make them especially suitable for research applications:

  • Very high sensitivity with peak QE above 80%.

  • High full-well capacity (up to 100ke- in the case of G2-0400 and G2-1600 models).

  • Non-ABG detectors with perfectly linear response to light.

G2-8300 still employs Full-Frame architecture CCD, but thanks to ABG this particular model is especially popular among astro-photographers:

  • KAF8300 CCD detector is equipped with anti-blooming gate (ABG), which protects electron leaks from saturated pixels to neighboring pixels when a bright star appears in the field of view.

  • Detector corresponds to the so-called “4/3 standard” and its imaging area 18.1נ13.7mm is the largest of all detectors used in the G2 series.

  • High resolution (more than 8MPx) and relatively small pixels (5,4נ5,4μm) makes this camera ideal for use with short focal length telescopes (or with ordinary photographic lenses).

G2-2000 and G2-4000 models use Interline-Transfer CCD detectors, bringing some unique features:

  • Electronic shuttering allows very short exposures of bright objects.

  • Fast windowing allows reading of arbitrary detector sub-frame faster than in the case of KAF CCD detectors.

  • Anti-blooming gate ensures proper images of bright stars in the field of view without blooming spikes, but it still does not harm linearity, so these cameras can also be used for research applications.

All members of the G2 Mark II series share the same design, making them powerful research and imaging tools:

  • Top quality electronics:

    • Lowest possible read noise, limited by CCD detector itself.

    • Uniform frames without artifacts.

    • High dynamic range, 16-bits digitization.

    • Fast image download.

  • Precise mechanical construction:

    • Compact camera head, small and lightweight enough to be attached even to small telescopes.

    • Integrated all-in-one design with USB and power connectors directly on the camera head.

    • Integrated mechanical shutter not to bother with covering the telescope when taking dark frames.

    • Optional integrated filter wheel.

    • Telescope/lens adapters with adjustable tilt.

  • Efficient and regulated sensor cooling:

    • CCD cooling up to 50C below ambient temperature.

    • Air cooling of the Peltier hot side with high quality magnetic levitating fan.

    • Cooling regulation +/-0.1C

    • Single-voltage power supply enabling operation from 12Vbattery or “brick” adapter.

  • Wide set of optional accessories:

    • External filter wheels supporting various number of filter positions and filter sizes.

    • Off-Axis Guider adapter.

    • Various telescope/lens adapters (T-thread, M48, Canon/Nikon bayonets etc.)

    • Gigabit Ethernet adapter.

    • Telescope mount dovetail adapter.

  • Rich software support:

    • Drivers for 32bit and 64bit Windows

    • Drivers for 32bit and 64bit Linux

    • Drivers for macOS (only certain applications are supported on macOS)

    • Complete camera/observatory control and scientific image processing system SIPS free with camera

    • Drivers for 3rd party software packages, including universal ASCOM drivers

No matter if your target is reliable scientific data or beautiful images of deep-sky objects, G2 Mark II cameras are able to provide both.

G2 Mark II Camera Overview

G2 camera head is designed to be easily used with a set of accessories to fulfill various observing needs. Camera head itself is manufactured in two different variants:

  • Camera with Internal filter wheel.

  • Camera with control port for External filter wheel. This model allows attachment of several variants of external filter wheels with various number of filter positions and sizes.

G2 Camera Mark II without filter wheel (left), with Internal filter wheel (middle) and with attached External filter wheel (right)

G2 Camera Mark II without filter wheel (left), with Internal filter wheel (middle) and with attached External filter wheel (right)

G2 camera model with Internal filter wheel accepts two sizes of filters:

  • Filter wheel with 5 positions for unmounted D31 mm filters or filters in 1.25 threaded cells.

  • Filter wheel with 6 positions for unmounted D26 mm (or 1) filters.

G2 Mark II camera with Internal filter wheel (left) and with External filter wheel attached (right)

There are two sizes of the External filter wheels, each capable to accept multiple sizes of filters, available for the G2 cameras:

  • Extra small “XS” size wheel for 8 unmounted filters D31mm or filters in 1.25 threaded cells.

  • Extra small “XS” size wheel for 7 unmounted filters D36mm.

  • Small “S” size wheel for 12 unmounted filters D31mm or filters in 1.25 threaded cells.

  • Small “S” size wheel for 10 unmounted filters D36mm.

  • Small “S” size wheel for 7 unmounted D50mm or 2" filter or filters in 2 threaded cells.

Remark:

Because G2 series of cameras can work with various sensors, not all filter wheel/filter variants can be used with every detector. For instance, G2-8300 camera works with CCD measuring 22.7 mm diagonally. Depending on the used optics f/ratio, 1 or even 1.25 filters can cause more or less significant vignetting when combined with such sensor.

Warning:

Please note the camera head is designed to either accept Internal filter wheel or to be able to connect to the External filter wheel, but not both. If the Internal filter wheel variant is used, External filter wheel cannot be attached.

Components of G2 Mark II Camera system include:

  1. G2 camera head with Internal Filter Wheel (5 or 6 positions)

  2. G2 camera head capable to control External Filter Wheel

  3. External Filter Wheel “XS” size (7 or 8 positions)

  4. External Filter Wheel “S” size (10 or 12 positions)

  5. G0 guider camera

  6. G1 guider camera

    Remark:

    G0 and G1 cameras are completely independent devices with their own USB connection to the host PC. They can be used either on G2 OAG or on standalone guiding telescope.

    Both G0 and G1 camera can share the Gx Camera Ethernet Adapter with up to 3 other Gx cameras to be accessed over TCP/IP network.

  7. Off-Axis Guider with M48נ0.75 thread

  8. Off-Axis Guider with M42נ0.75 thread (T2)

  9. Thick adapter base, compensating EFW thickness to achieve proper back focal distance for cameras without filter wheel

  10. 1.75 dovetail rail for G2 camera head

  11. Gx Camera Ethernet Adapter (x86 CPU)

  12. Gx Camera Ethernet Adapter (ARM CPU)

    Remark:

    Camera Ethernet Adapter allows connection of up to 4 Gx cameras of any type on the one side and 1 Gbps Ethernet on the other side. This adapter allows access to connected Gx cameras using routable TCP/IP protocol over unlimited distance.

  13. 5-positions internal filter wheel for 1.25/D31 mm filters

  14. 8-positions external filter wheel “XS” for 1.25/D31 mm filters

  15. 7-positions external filter wheel “XS” for D36 mm filters

  16. 12-positions external filter wheel “S” for 1.25/D31 mm filters

  17. 10-positions external filter wheel “S” for D36 mm filters

  18. 7-positions external filter wheel “S” for 2/D50 mm filters

  19. M42נ0.75 (T-thread) or M48נ0.75 threaded adapters, 55 mm BFD

    Remark:

    Other standard adapters are available, for instance threaded 2" barrel adapter etc.

  20. Canon EOS bayonet lens adapter

  21. Nikon bayonet lens adapter

The G2 cameras are designed to work in cooperation with a host Personal Computer (PC). As opposite to digital still cameras, which are operated independently on the computer, the scientific slow-scan, cooled cameras usually require computer for operation control, image download, processing and storage etc. To operate the camera, you need a computer which:

  1. Is compatible with a PC standard and runs modern 32 or 64-bit Windows operating system.

  2. Is compatible with a PC standard and runs 32 or 64-bit Linux operating system.

    Remark:

    Drivers for 32-bit and 64-bit Linux systems are provided, but the SIPS camera control and image processing software, supplied with the camera, requires Windows operating system.

  3. Support for x64 based Apple Macintosh computers is also included.

    Remark:

    Only certain software packages are currently supported on Mac.

G2 cameras require at last one free USB 2.0 port to communicate with a host PC.

Alternatively, it is possible to use the Gx Camera Ethernet Adapter device. This device can connect up to four Gx cameras of any type (not only G2, but also G0, G1, G3 and G4) and offers 1 Gbps and 10/100 Mbps Ethernet interface for direct connection to the host PC. Because the PC then uses TCP/IP protocol to communicate with the cameras, it is possible to insert WiFi adapter or other networking device to the communication path.

G2 Mark II Camera Models

Available models of G2 Mark II cameras:

Model CCD Chip ABG Color mask Resolution Pixel size Imaging area Preview download Low-Noise download
G2-0400 KAF-0402ME No None 768נ512 9נ9μm 6.9נ4.6mm 0.19s 0.25s
G2-1600 KAF-1603ME No None 1536נ1024 9נ9μm 13.8נ9.2mm 0.67s 0.95s
G2-3200 KAF-3200ME No None 2184נ1472 6.8נ6.8μm 14.9נ10mm 1.39s 1.95s
G2-8300 KAF8300 Monochrome >1000 None 3358נ2536 5.4נ5.4 μm 18.1נ13.7mm 3.48s 4.95s
G2-8300C KAF8300 Color >1000 Bayer RGBG 3358נ2536 5.4נ5.4 μm 18.1נ13.7mm 3.48s 4.95s
G2-2000 KAI-2020 Monochrome >300 None 1604נ1204 7.4נ7.4μm 11.9נ8.9mm 0.73s 1.06s
G2-2000C KAI-2020 Color >300 Bayer RGBG 1602נ1202 7.4נ7.4μm 11.9נ8.9mm 0.73s 1.06s
G2-4000 KAI-4022 Monochrome >300 None 2056נ2062 7.4נ7.4μm 15.2נ15.3mm 1.56s 2.30s
G2-4000C KAI-4022 Color >300 Bayer RGBG 2054נ2060 7.4נ7.4μm 15.2נ15.3mm 1.56s 2.30s

CCD detectors

G2 Mark II series of CCD cameras are manufactured with two kinds of CCD detectors:

  • G2 cameras with OnSemi KAF Full Frame (FF) CCD architecture. Almost all Full Frame CCD detector area is exposed to light. This is why these detectors provide very high quantum efficiency. FF CCD detectors, intended for research applications, are not equipped with so-called Anti Blooming Gate (ABG a gate, which prohibits blooming of the charge to neighboring pixels when image is over-exposed) to ensure linear response to light through the whole dynamic range. FF CCD detectors used for astrophotography are equipped with ABG to eliminate disrupting blooming streaks within field of view.

    Cameras with Full Frame, non-ABG detectors are suitable for scientific applications, where linear response is necessary for photometric applications in astronomy, microscopy etc. High quantum efficiency could be used also for narrow-band imaging, where overexposure is a rare exception, and for imaging of small objects without a bright star in the field of view.

    Full Frame CCD schematic diagram

    “Full Frame” CCD schematic diagram

  • G2 cameras with OnSemi KAI Interline Transfer (IT) architecture. There is a shielded column of pixels just beside each column of active pixels on these detectors. The shielded columns are called Vertical registers. One pulse moves charge from exposed pixels to shielded pixels on the end of each exposure. The the charge is moved from vertical registers to horizontal register and digitized in the same way like in the case of Full Frame detectors. This mechanism is also known as electronic shuttering because it allows very short exposures and also digitization of the image without mechanically shielding of the detector from incoming light.

    Remark:

    Also, G2 cameras with IT CCDs are equipped with mechanical shutter, because electronic shutter does not allow dark-frame exposures, necessary for proper image calibration etc.

    The price for electronic shutter if lower quantum efficiency (sensitivity) of IT detectors compared to FF ones. Also, all IT detectors are equipped with ABG, so they can acquire images of very bright objects without charge blooming to neighboring pixels.

    Interline Transfer CCD schematic diagram

    “Interline Transfer” CCD schematic diagram

Model G2-0400

G2-0400 model uses 0.4MPx OnSemi KAF-0402ME NABG Full-Frame CCD chip.

Resolution 768 (H)נ512 (V) pixels
Pixel size 9μm (H)נ9μm (V)
Imaging area 6.9mm (H)נ4.6mm (V)
Full well capacity ~100,000 e-
Output node capacity ~220,000 e-
Anti-blooming gate No
Dark current 1 e-/s/pixel at 0C
Dark signal doubling temperature 6.3C

KAF-0402ME CCD chip specifications

KAF-0402ME CCD chip and its Quantum Efficiency

Model G2-1600

G2-1600 model uses 1.6 MPx OnSemi KAF-1603ME NABG Full-Frame CCD chip.

Resolution 1536 (H)נ1024 (V) pixels
Pixel size 9μm (H)נ9μm (V)
Imaging area 13.8mm (H)נ9.2mm (V)
Full well capacity ~100,000 e-
Output node capacity ~220,000 e-
Anti-blooming gate No
Dark current 1 e-/s/pixel at 0C
Dark signal doubling temperature 6.3C

KAF-1603ME CCD chip specifications

KAF-1603ME CCD chip and its Quantum Efficiency

Model G2-3200

G2-3200 model uses 3.2 MPx OnSemi KAF-3200ME NABG Full-Frame CCD chip.

Resolution 2184 (H)נ1472 (V) pixels
Pixel size 6.8μm (H)נ6.8μm (V)
Imaging area 14.9mm (H)נ10mm (V)
Full well capacity ~55,000 e-
Output node capacity ~110,000 e-
Anti-blooming gate No
Dark current 0.8 e-/s/pixel at 0C
Dark signal doubling 6C

KAF-3200ME CCD chip specifications

KAF-3200ME CCD chip and its Quantum Efficiency

Model G2-8300

G2-8300 camera uses 8 MPx OnSemi KAF8300 ABG Full Frame CCD detectors with 4/3 format.

Resolution 3358 (H)נ2536 (V) pixels
Pixel size 5.4μm (H)נ5.4μm (V)
Imaging area 18.1mm (H)נ13.7mm (V)
Full well capacity ~25,000 e--
Anti-blooming gate 1000
Dark current 0.2 e-/s/pixel at 0C
Dark signal doubling temperature 5.8C

KAF-0402ME CCD chip specifications

KAF8300 CCD chip and its Quantum Efficiency

Model G2-2000

G2-2000 model uses 2MPx OnSemi ABG Inteline-Transfer KAI-2020 CCD chip.

Resolution 1604 (H)נ1204 (V) pixels
Pixel size 7.4μm (H)נ7.4μm (V)
Imaging area 11.9mm (H)נ8.9mm (V)
Full well capacity ~40,000 e-
Anti-blooming gate 300
Dark current 0.3 e-/s/pixel at 0C
Dark signal doubling 7C

KAI-2020 CCD chip specifications

KAI-2020 CCD chip and its Quantum Efficiency

Model G2-4000

G2-4000 model uses 4MPx OnSemi ABG Inteline-Transfer KAI-4022 CCD chip.

Resolution 2056 (H)נ2062 (V) pixels
Pixel size 7.4μm (H)נ7.4μm (V)
Imaging area 15.2נ15.3mm
Full well capacity ~40,000 e-
Anti-blooming gate 300
Dark current 0.3 e-/s/pixel at 0C
Dark signal doubling 7C

KAI-4022 CCD chip specifications

KAI-4022 CCD chip and its Quantum Efficiency

Camera Electronics

16-bit A/D converter with correlated double sampling ensures high dynamic range and CCD chip-limited readout noise. Fast USB interface ensures image download time within seconds.

Maximum length of single USB cable is approx. 5 m. This length can be extended to 10 m or 15 m by using single USB hub or active USB extender cable. Up to 5 hubs or active extenders can be used in one connection.

Gx Camera Ethernet Adapter device allows connection of up to four Gx cameras of any type through Ethernet interface and TCP/IP network. Because TCP/IP protocol can be routed, the distance between camera and host PC can be virtually unlimited.

ADC resolution 16 bits
Sampling method Correlated double sampling
Read modes Preview mode
Low Noise mode
Horizontal binning 1 to 4 pixels
Vertical binning 1 to 4 pixels
Sub-frame readout Arbitrary sub-frame
Computer interface USB 2.0 High Speed
USB 1.1 Full Speed compatible

Camera electronics specifications

Image download time depends on the CCD chip used in particular camera model. Also the read noise depends on the chip as well as on the read mode.

  • Preview read mode provides system read noise approx. 1or2e- above CCD chip read noise.

  • Low Noise read mode is somewhat slower, but ensures system read noise roughly equal to the manufacturer-specified chip read noise.

Model G2-0400

Gain 1.5 e-/ADU (1נ1 binning)
2.0 e-/ADU (other binnings)
System read noise 13 e- RMS (Low Noise mode)
15 e- RMS (Preview mode)
Full frame download 0.25 s(Low Noise mode)
0.16 s(Preview mode)

G2-0400 electronics specifications

Model G2-1600

Gain 1.5 e-/ADU (1נ1 binning)
2.0 e-/ADU (other binnings)
System read noise 13 e- RMS (Low Noise mode)
15 e- RMS (Preview mode)
Full frame download 0.95 s(Low Noise mode)
0.67 s(Preview mode)

G2-1600 electronics specifications

Model G2-3200

Gain 0.8 e-/ADU (1נ1 binning)
1.3 e-/ADU (other binnings)
System read noise 7 e- RMS (Low Noise mode)
9 e- RMS (Preview mode)
Full frame download 1.95 s(Low Noise mode)
1.39 s(Preview mode)

G2-3200 electronics specifications

Model G2-8300

Gain 0.4 e-/ADU (1נ1 binning)
0.8 e-/ADU (other binnings)
System read noise 8 e- RMS (Low Noise mode)
9 e- RMS (Preview mode)
Full frame download 4.95 s(Low Noise mode)
3.48 s(Preview mode)

G2-8300 electronics specifications

Model G2-2000

Gain 0.5 e-/ADU (1נ1 binning)
0.8 e-/ADU (other binnings)
System read noise 7 e- RMS (Low Noise mode)
9 e- RMS (Preview mode)
Full frame download 1.06 s(Low Noise mode)
0.73 s(Preview mode)

G2-2000 electronics specifications

Model G2-4000

Gain 0.5 e-/ADU (1נ1 binning)
0.8 e-/ADU (other binnings)
System read noise 7 e- RMS (Low Noise mode)
9 e- RMS (Preview mode)
Full frame download 2.30 s(Low Noise mode)
1.56 s(Preview mode)

G2-4000 electronics specifications

Notes:

  1. Binning can be combined independently on both axes.

  2. Stated read noise is measured on particular CCD sensor, evaluated during camera design. Actual read noise of different sensors varies among various manufacturing batches, but also within single manufacturing batch. The camera read noise is determined by the sensor itself and the camera manufacturer cannot affect it.

Cooling and power supply

Regulated thermoelectric cooling is capable to cool the CCD chip up to 50C below ambient temperature. The Peltier hot side is cooled by fan. The CCD chip temperature is regulated with +/-0.1C precision. High temperature drop and precision regulation ensure very low dark current for long exposures and allow proper image calibration.

The camera head contains two temperature sensors the first sensor measures directly the temperature of the CCD chip package. The second one measures the temperature inside the camera shell.

Back side of the G2 Mark II camera head contains vents for a fan, cooling Peltier hot side

Back side of the G2 Mark II camera head contains vents for a fan, cooling Peltier hot side

The cooling performance depends on the environmental conditions and also on the power supply. If the power supply voltage drops below 12V, the maximum temperature drop is lower.

CCD chip cooling Thermoelectric (Peltier modules)
Maximal cooling Δ T >50C below ambient
Regulated cooling Δ T 45C below ambient (85% cooling)
Regulation precision 0.1C
Hot side cooling Forced air cooling (fan)

Chip cooling specifications

Remark:

Maximum temperature difference between CCD and ambient air may be reached when the cooling runs at 100% power. However, temperature cannot be regulated in such case, camera has no room for keeping the CCD temperature when the ambient temperature rises. Typical temperature drop can be achieved with cooling running at approx. 85% power, which provides enough room for regulation.

Power supply

The 12VDC power supply enables camera operation from arbitrary power source including batteries, wall adapters etc. Universal 100-240V AC/50-60Hz, 60W “brick” adapter is supplied with the camera. Although the camera power consumption does not exceed 40W, the 60W power supply ensures noise-free operation.

Camera power supply 12 V DC
Camera power consumption 15 W without cooling
40 W maximum cooling
Power plug 5.5/2.5 mm, center +
Adapter input voltage 100-240 V AC/50-60 Hz
Adapter output voltage 12 V DC/5 A
Adapter maximum power 60 W

Power supply specification

Warning:

The power connector on the camera head uses center-plus pin. Although all modern power supplies use this configuration, always make sure the polarity is correct if other than the supplied power source is used.

Remark:

Power consumption is measured on the input (AC side) of the supplied power adapter. Camera consumes less energy from 12V power supply than state here.

The camera contains its own power supplies inside, so it can be powered by unregulated 12 V DC power source the input voltage can be anywhere between 10 and 14V. However, some parameters (like cooling efficiency) can degrade if the supply drops below 12 V.

G2 camera measures its input voltage and provides it to the control software. Input voltage is displayed in the Cooling tab of the Imaging Camera control tool in the SIPS program. This feature is important especially if you power the camera from batteries.

12 V DC/5 A power supply adapter for G2 camera

12 V DC/5 A power supply adapter for G2 camera

Mechanical Specifications

Compact and robust camera head measures only 114נ114נ65 mm (approx. 4.5נ4.5נ2.6 inches). The head is CNC-machined from high-quality aluminum and black anodized. The head itself contains USB-B (device) connector and 12 V DC power plug. Integrated mechanical shutter allows streak-free image readout, as well as automatic dark frame exposures, which are necessary for unattended, robotic setups.

Camera head with integrated Internal filter wheel is 77.5 mm thick. Filter wheel offers 5 positions for standard 1.25-inch threaded filter cells. A variant of filter wheel with 6 positions for unmounted D26mm filters is also available.

Internal mechanical shutter Yes, blade shutter
Shortest exposure time 0.1 s
Longest exposure time Limited by chip saturation only
Internal filter wheel 5 positions for 1.25" threaded filter cells or for D31mm unmounted filters
6 positions for 1" or D26.5mm unmounted filters
Head dimensions 114mmנ114mmנ77.5mm (with internal filter wheel)
114mmנ114mmנ65mm (without filter wheel)
Back focal distance 33.5mm (base of adjustable adapters)
Camera head weight 1.00kg (without filter wheel)
1.15kg (with internal filter wheel)
1.70kg (with “XS” external filter wheel)
1.95kg (with “S” external filter wheel)

Mechanical specifications

Remark:

Filter wheel with 6 positions can cause vignetting (shielding of the detector corners) if large CCD detector is used.

Back focus distance is measured from the sensor to the base on which adjustable adapters are mounted. Various adapters then provide back focal distance specific for the particular adapter type (e.g. M48 threaded adapter back focal distance is 55mm).

Stated back focal distance already calculates with glass permanently placed in the optical path (e.g. optical window covering the CCD cold chamber).

When the adjustable adapter base, intended for camera with Internal filter wheel, is mounted on camera without filter wheel, the resulting back focal distance is only 21mm.

Camera with Internal Filter Wheel

G2 Mark II camera head front view dimensions

G2 Mark II camera head front view dimensions

G2 Mark II camera head with Internal Filter Wheel side view dimensions

Camera with “XS” External Filter Wheel

G2 Mark II camera head with External filter wheel front view dimensions

G2 Mark II camera head with External filter wheel front view dimensions

G2 Mark II camera head with External filter wheel side view dimensions

The “S” sized External filter wheel diameter is greater (viz. External Filter Wheels), but the back focal distance of all external filter wheels is identical.

Camera without filter wheel

If the camera model, intended for usage with External filter wheel, is used without filter wheel at all, two types of adjustable adapter bases can be used.

When a “thin” adapter base, intended for camera with Internal filter wheel, is used, the back focal distance is only 21mm.

Camera without filter wheel with thin adapter base

Camera without filter wheel with “thin” adapter base

“Thick” adapter base has the same thickness like the External filter wheel. This means all adapters, attached to this thick base, keep the same back focal distance like if attached directly to External filter wheel shell or to a camera with Internal filter wheel and thin adapter base.

Camera without filter wheel with thick adapter base

Camera without filter wheel with “thick” adapter base

Optional accessories

Various accessories are offered with G2 Mark II cameras to enhance functionality and help camera integration into imaging setups.

External filter wheels

When there is no filter wheel inside the camera head, all electronics and firmware, intended to control it, stays idle. These components can be utilized to control external filter wheel with only little changes. Also the camera front shell can be manufactured thinner, the space for filter wheel is superfluous.

G2 Camera Mark II with Internal filter wheel (left) and with attached External filter wheel (right)

G2 Camera Mark II with Internal filter wheel (left) and with attached External filter wheel (right)

Telescope adapters

Various telescope and lens adapters for the G2 Mark II cameras are offered. Users can choose any adapter according to their needs and other adapters can be ordered separately.

  • 2-inch barrel adapter for standard 2" focusers.

  • T-thread short M42נ0.75 inner thread adapter.

  • T-thread with 55 mm BFD M42נ0.75 inner thread adapter, preserves 55mm back focal distance.

  • M48נ0.75 short adapter with inner thread M48נ0.75.

  • M48נ0.75with 55 mm BFD adapter with inner thread M48נ0.75, preserves 55mm back focal distance.

  • Canon EOS bayonet standard Canon EOS lens adapter, preserves 44mm back focal distance.

  • Nikon F bayonet standard Nikon F lens adapter, preserves 46.5mm back focal distance.

All telescope/lens adapters of the G2 MarkII series of cameras can be slightly tilted. This feature is introduced to compensate for possible misalignments in perpendicularity of the telescope optical axis and sensor plane.

The MarkII camera telescope adapters are attached using three “pulling” screws. As the adapter tilt is adjustable, another three “pushing” screws are intended to fix the adapter after some pulling screw is released to adjust the tilt.

Adjusting the telescope adapter tilt (left) and removing tiltable the adapter (right)

Adjustable telescope/lens adapters are attached slightly differently depending if the adapter is attached directly to the camera head (e.g. when camera is equipped with internal filter wheel) or to the External filter wheel case.

  • G2 MarkII adapters are not mounted directly on the camera head. Instead a tilting adapter base, holding the circular spring, is always used.

  • If the External filter wheel is used, the adapted base is not necessary, as the MarkII External filter wheel front plate is already designed to hold the spring and it also contains threads to fix respective adapters.

Mark II External filter wheels are already designed to for adjustable telescope adapters

Mark II External filter wheels are already designed to for adjustable telescope adapters

Off-Axis Guider Adapter (OAG)

G2 camera can be optionally equipped with Off-Axis Guider Adapter. This adapter contains flat mirror, tilted by 45 to the optical axis. This mirror reflects part of the incoming light into guider camera port. The mirror is located far enough from the optical axis not to block light coming to the main camera sensor, so the optics must be capable to create large enough field of view to illuminate the tilted mirror.

G2-OAG is manufactured in two variants, one with M42נ0.75 thread (T-thread) and another with M48נ0.75 thread. Both variants are designed to be compatible with external filter wheels and to preserve 55mm distance from the sensor.

G2 OAG with M42 thread (left) and with M48 thread (right)

If the OAG has to be used on camera with internal filter wheel, the OAG is mounted to adapter base like any other adapter. Resulting Back focal distance remains the same.

OAG guider port is compatible with G0 and G1 cameras. It is necessary to replace the CS/1.25 adapter with short, 10mm variant in the case of G1 cameras. Because G1 cameras follow CS-mount standard, (BFD 12.5mm), any camera following this standard with 10mm long 1.25 adapter should work properly with the G2-OAG.

G2-OAG sectional rendering illustrating reflecting mirror

G2-OAG sectional rendering illustrating reflecting mirror

Attaching camera head to telescope mount

G2 MarkII camera heads are equipped with “tripod” thread (0.25) on the top side. This thread can be used to attach 1.75inch “dovetail bar” (Vixen standard). It is then possible to attach the camera head, e.g. equipped with photographic lens, directly to various telescope mounts supporting this standard.

1.75" bar for standard telescope mounts

1.75" bar for standard telescope mounts

Tool-less desiccant containers

G2 Mark II cameras employ the same desiccant container like the larger G3 and G4 cameras. The whole container can be unscrewed, so it is possible to exchange silica-gel without the necessity to remove the camera from the telescope.

This design also allows usage of some optional parts:

  • Threaded hermetic cap, allowing sealing of the dried container when it is not immediately attached to the camera head.

  • Alternate (somewhat longer) desiccant container, modified to be able to be screw in and tightened (as well as released and screwed out) without any tool.

Comparison of the standard and tool-less container (left), optional cap, standard and tool-less variant of the container

Camera head color variants

Camera head is available in several color variants of the center plate. Visit manufacturer's web pages for current offering.

G2 Mark II camera color variants

G2 Mark II camera color variants

Software Support

Powerful SIPS (Scientific Image Processing System) software, supplied with the camera, allows complete camera control (exposures, cooling, filter selection etc.). Also automatic sequences of images with different filters, different binning etc. are supported. With full ASCOM standard support, SIPS can be also used to control other observatory equipment. Specifically the telescope mounts, but also other devices (focusers, dome or roof controllers, GPS receivers etc.).

SIPS also supports automatic guiding, including image dithering. Both “autoguider” port hardware interface (6-wire cable) and mount “Pulse-Guide API” guiding methods are supported. For hi-quality mounts, capable to track without the necessity to guide at last during one exposure, inter-image guiding using the main camera only is available.

SIPS controlling whole observatory (shown in optional dark skin)

SIPS controlling whole observatory (shown in optional dark skin)

But SIPS is capable to do much more than just camera and observatory control. Many tools for image calibration, 16 and 32bit FITS file handling, image set processing (e.g. median combine), image transformation, image export etc. are available.

SIPS handles FITS files, supports image calibration and processing

As the first “S” in the abbreviation SIPS means Scientific, the software supports astrometric image reduction as well as photometric processing of image series.

SIPS focuses to advanced astrometric and photometric image reduction, but also provides some very basic astro-photography processing

SIPS software package is freely available for download from this www site. All functions are thoroughly described in the SIPS User's Manual, installed with every copy of the software.

Drivers for ASCOM standard as well as native drivers for third-party software are also available (e.g. TheSkyX, MaxIm DL, AstroArt, etc.). Visit the download page of this web site for current list of available drivers, please.

Also INDI drivers for 32bit and 64bit Linux running on x86 and ARM are available. Also drivers for TheSkyX package running on macOS are supplied with the camera.

Automatic guiding

SIPS software package allows automatic guiding of the astronomical telescope mounts using separate guiding camera. Proper and reliable automatic guiding utilizing the computational power of Personal Computer (e.g. calculation of star centroid allows guiding with sub-pixel precision) is not simple task. Guiding complexity corresponds to number of parameters, which must be entered (or automatically measured).

The SIPS Guider tool window

The SIPS “Guider” tool window

The “Guiding” tool allows switching of autoguiding on and off, starting of the automatic calibration procedure and recalculation of autoguiding parameters when the telescope changes declination without the necessity of new calibration. Also swapping of the German Equatorial mount no longer requires new autoguider calibration. There is also a graph showing time history of guide star offsets from reference position in both axes. The length of graph history as well as the graph range can be freely defined, so the graph can be adjusted according to particular mount errors and periodic error period length. Complete log of calibration procedure, detected offsets, correction pulses etc. is also shown in this tool. The log can by anytime saved to log file.

An alternative to classic autoguiding is the inter-image guiding, designed for modern mounts, which are precise enough to keep tracking with sub-pixel precision through the single exposure, and irregularities only appear on the multiple-exposure time-span. Inter-image guiding then performs slight mount position fixes between individual exposures of the main camera, which eliminates “traveling” of the observed objects through the detector area during observing session. This guiding method uses main imaging camera, it does not use another guiding camera and naturally does not need neither OAG nor separate guiding telescope to feed the light into it.

Inter-image guiding controls in the Guiding tab of the Imager Camera tool window

Inter-image guiding controls in the Guiding tab of the Imager Camera tool window

Advanced reconstruction of color information of single-shot-color cameras

Color CCD detectors have red, green and blue filters applied directly on individual pixels (so-called Bayer mask).

Schematic diagram of color CCD detector with Bayer mask (left) and magnified crop of raw image captured by color camera (right)

Every pixel registers light of particular color only (red, green or blue). But color image should contain all three colors for every pixel. So it is necessary to calculate missing information from values of neighboring pixels.

There are many ways how to calculate missing color values from simple extending of colors to neighboring pixels (this method leads to coarse images with visible color errors) to methods based on bi-linear or bi-cubic interpolation to even more advanced multi-pass methods etc.

Bi-linear interpolation provides significantly better results than simple extending of color information to neighboring pixels and still it is fast enough. But if the telescope/lens resolution is close to the size of individual pixels, color artifacts appear close to fine details, as demonstrated by the image below left.

The above raw image with colors calculated using bi-linear interpolation (left) and the same raw image, but now processed by the multi-pass de-mosaic algorithm (right)

Multi-pass algorithm is significantly slower compared to single-pass bi-linear interpolation, but the resulting image is much better, especially in fine details. This method allows using of color camera resolution to its limits.

SIPS offers choosing of color image interpolation method in both “Image Transform” and “New Image Transform” tools. For fast image previews or if the smallest details are significantly bigger than is the pixel size (be it due to seeing or resolution of the used telescope/lens) the fast bi-linear interpolation is good enough. But the best results can be achieved using multi-pass method.

Shipping and Packaging

G2 Mark II cameras are supplied in the foam-filled, hard carrying case containing:

  • Camera body with a user-chosen telescope adapter. If ordered, the filter wheel is already mounted inside the camera head and filters are threaded into place (if ordered).

  • A100-240VAC input, 12VDC output “brick” adapter with 1.8m long power cable.

  • 5m long USB A-B cable for connecting camera to host PC.

  • USB Flash Drive with camera drivers, SIPS software package with electronic documentation and PDF version of User'sManual.

  • Aprinted copy of camera User'sManual

G2 cameras are shipped in the foam-filled carrying case (left), larger case is used if camera is ordered with external filter wheel (right)

Image Galleries

Example images captured with G2 cameras.

Object NGC5128 “Centaurus A” galaxy
Author Roger Gifkins
Camera G2-4000
Filters RGB
Exposure 28.8 hours
Telescope TOA 150

Object M83 “Southern Pinwheel” galaxy
Author Roger Gifkins
Camera G2-4000
Filters RGB
Exposure 76.3 hours
Telescope TOA 150

Object IC443 “Jellyfish nebula”
Author Nicolas Kizilian
Camera G2-8300
Filters Halpha, OIII
Exposure 8.5 hours
Telescope William Optics Zenithstar 66

Object Simeis 147 supernova remnant
Author Nicolas Kizilian
Camera G2-8300
Filters Halpha, OIII
Exposure 42 hours
Telescope William Optics Zenithstar 66

Object NGC 6939, NGC 6946, Barnard 150, Sharpless 129, Ou4, VdB 140
Author Nicolas Kizilian
Camera G2-8300
Filters RGB, narrow-band
Exposure 47 hours
Telescope William Optics Zenithstar 66

Object NGC7023 “Iris” nebula
Author Nicolas Kizilian
Camera G2-8300
Filters Astrodon LRGB
Exposure 6 hours
Telescope William Optics Zenithstar 66

Object IC1396 “Elephant trunk” nebula
Author Nicolas Kizilian
Camera G2-8300
Filters Halpha, OIII
Exposure 6 hours
Telescope William Optics Zenithstar 66

Object NGC6888 “Crescent” nebula and “Soap bubble” nebula
Author Nicolas Kizilian
Camera G2-8300
Filters Hα, OIII
Exposure 9 hours
Telescope William Optics Zenithstar 66

Object NGC7635 “Bubble” nebula and surroundings
Author Nicolas Kizilian
Camera G2-8300
Filters Astrodon Hα,OIII
Exposure 10.5 hours
Telescope William Optics Zenithstar 66

Object NGC 4038 “Antennae”
Author Marco Burali
Camera G2-4000
Filters LRGB
Exposure 3 hours
Telescope TOA 150, f/5.8

Object NGC4725, NGC4712, NGC4747
Author Marco Burali
Camera G2-4000
Filters LRGB
Exposure 5 hours
Telescope TSA 120, f/5.8

Object M42 “Great Orion Nebula”
Author Reinhold Wittich
Camera G2-8300
Filters LRGB, Hα, OIII and SII
Exposure more than 10 hours
Telescope 300mm Newtonian

Object “Elephant Trunk” nebula, part of nebulosity complex IC1396 in Cepheus
Author Martin Myslivec
Camera G2-8300
Filters Hα, OIII and SII
Exposure 28 hours
Telescope 300mm f/4.5 astrograph

Object “Flame” and “Horse Head” nebulae in Orion
Author Jan Camek
Camera G2-8300
Filters Astrodon Ha, Baader LRGB
Exposure 7.2 hours
Telescope 300mm f/2.9 astrograph

Object IC1805 nebula complex
Author Jan Camek
Camera G2-8300
Filters Astrodon Ha+OIII (bi-color)
Exposure 14 hours
Telescope 300mm f/2.9 astrograph

Object M33 “Triangulum galaxy”
Author Jan Camek
Camera G2-8300
Filters Astrodon Ha+OIII, Baader LRGB, IDAS LPS2
Exposure 12 hours
Telescope 300mm f/2.9 astrograph

Object M78 nebula
Author Jan Camek
Camera G2-8300
Filters Baader LRGB
Exposure 6.2 hours
Telescope 300mm f/2.9 astrograph

Object NGC2244 “Rosette” nebula
Author Jan Camek
Camera G2-8300
Filters Astrodon Ha 5nm, OIII 3nm (bi-color)
Exposure 9 hours
Telescope 300mm f/2.9 astrograph

Object NGC5128 “Centaurus A” galaxy
Author Jan Camek
Camera G2-8300
Filters Baader LRGB
Exposure 6.6 hours
Telescope 300mm f/2.9 astrograph

Object NGC6914 nebula complex
Author Jan Camek
Camera G2-8300
Filters Baader LRGB
Exposure 6 hours
Telescope 300mm f/2.9 astrograph

Object WR134, nebulosity around a Wolf Rayet star in Cygnus
Author Tommy Nawratil
Camera G2-8300 (LRGB + Hα + OIII filters)
Telescope 10inch f/4 Newton

Object NGC7000 “North America” a IC5070 “Pelican”
Author Ondrej Podlucky
Camera G2-8300 (+ narrow-band filters)
Exposure 43 hours (mosaic of two frames)
Telescope Borg 101ED + F4ED reducer

Object M8 “Lagoon”
Author David Kennedy
Camera G2-8300 (+ Ha, R, G, B filters)
Exposure 9.5 hours
Telescope Borg 60ED

Object IC1396 “Elephant'strunk”
Author Ondrej Podlucky
Camera G2-8300 (+ narrow-band filters)
Exposure 27 hours
Telescope Borg 101ED + F4ED reducer

Object Lambda Centauri region
Author David Kennedy
Camera G2-8300 (+ Ha, R, G, B filters)
Exposure 8.9 hours
Telescope 71fl miniBorg F/7.8

Object NGC6888 Crescent nebula
Author Jonas Fiedler
Camera G2-8300 (+ Ha, R, G, B filters)
Exposure 4.5 hours
Telescope Takahashi FSQ 106

Object NGC1499 California Nebula
Author Ondrej Podlucky
Camera G2-8300 (+ narrow-band filters)
Exposure 28 hours
Telescope Borg 101ED + F4ED reducer

Object NGC891
Author Stefano Campani
Camera G2-8300 with Hα and RGB filters
Exposure 6.4 hours
Telescope 24" (610mm) RNT Newton

Object NGC660
Author Stefano Campani
Camera G2-8300 with Hα and RGB filters
Exposure 10.6 hours
Telescope 24" (610mm) RNT Newton

Object IC348
Author Milo Hroch
Camera G2-8300
Telescope 200mm, f/2.9 astrograph (f/4 mirror + 0.73 ASA corrector)

Object NGC281 “Pacman nebula”
Author Milo Hroch
Camera G2-8300
Telescope 200mm, f/2.9 astrograph (f/4 mirror + 0.73 ASA corrector)

Object VdB14, VdB15
Author Milo Hroch
Camera G2-8300
Telescope 200mm, f/2.9 astrograph (f/4 mirror + 0.73 ASA corrector)

Object NGC7380 “Wizard nebula”
Author Milo Hroch
Camera G2-8300
Telescope 200mm, f/2.9 astrograph (f/4 mirror + 0.73 ASA corrector)

Object M31 “Andromeda galaxy”
Author Patrick Hochleitner and Dieter Beer
Camera G2-8300
Telescope Skywatcher BD 80ED + 0,85 flattener

Object NGC7023 “Iris Nebula”
Author Patrick Hochleitner a Dieter Beer
Camera G2-8300
Telescope Skywatcher BD 80ED + 0,85 flattener

Object IC5070 “Pelican Nebula”
Author Thomas Jger
Camera G2-8300
Telescope 12" (305mm) f/3.8 astrograph

Object M20 “Trifid”
Author David Kennedy
Camera G2-8300
Telescope Vixen VC200L with reducer

Object Comet C2009P1 Garradd and M71
Author Martin Myslivec
Camera G2-8300
Telescope 185mm f/3.9 astrograph

Object IC1396 “Elephant Trunk”
Author Martin Myslivec
Camera G2-8300 (+narrow-band filters)
Telescope 185mm f/3.9 astrograph

Object NGC5128 “Centaurus A”
Author David Kennedy
Camera G2-8300
Telescope Vixen VC200L with reducer

Object NGC6888 “Crescent Nebula”
Author Patrick Hochleitner and Dieter Beer
Camera G2-8300
Telescope Skywatcher BD 120ED + 0,85 flattener

Object M101
Author Christoph Gerhard
Camera G2-8300
Telescope 7-inch Maksutov

Object NGC6559
Author Resa Ghanawistschi
Camera G2-8300
Telescope Pentax 75SDHF

Object NGC7000 “North America”
Author Martin Myslivec
Camera G2-8300 (+ narrow-band filters)
Telescope 185mm f/3.9 astrograph

Object M101
Author Manferd Fischer
Camera G2-8300
Telescope ASA N8

Object IC405, IC410
Author Ondrej Podlucky
Camera G2-8300 (+ narrow-band filters)
Telescope Borg 101ED + F4ED reducer

Object NGC2237 “Rosette”
Author Ondrej Podlucky
Camera G2-8300 (+ narrow-band filters)
Telescope Borg 101ED + F4ED reducer

Object IC434 “Horse Head”
Author Ondrej Podlucky
Camera G2-8300 (+ Hα)
Telescope Borg 101ED + F4ED reducer

Object NGC2237 “Rosette”
Author Tsutomu Chikazawa
Camera G2-8300
Telescope Orion CT10 Newtonian

Object M1 “Crab Nebula”
Author Tsutomu Chikazawa
Camera G2-8300
Telescope Orion CT10 Newtonian

Object M33
Author Tsutomu Chikazawa
Camera G2-8300
Telescope Orion CT10 Newtonian

Object M51 “Whirlpool Galaxy”
Author Tsutomu Chikazawa
Camera G2-8300
Telescope Orion CT10 Newtonian

Object M81 “Boode Galaxy”
Author Tsutomu Chikazawa
Camera G2-8300
Telescope Orion CT10 Newtonian

Object NGC4725
Author Martin Myslivec
Camera G2-8300
Telescope 185mm f/3.9 astrograph

Object NGC891
Author Pavel Cagas
Camera G2-8300
Telescope 250mm f/5.4 Newton

Object M33
Author Martin Myslivec
Camera G2-8300
Telescope 185mm f/3.9 astrograph

Object NGC7000 “North America”
Author Martin Myslivec
Camera G2-8300
Telescope 185mm f/3.9 astrograph

Object “Cave Nebula”
Author Martin Myslivec
Camera G2-8300
Telescope 185mm f/3.9 astrograph

Object NGC6888 “Crescent” (bi-color)
Author Martin Myslivec
Camera G2-8300
Telescope 185mm f/3.9 astrograph

Object IC1396 “Elephant Trunk”
Author Martin Myslivec
Camera G2-8300
Telescope 185mm f/3.9 astrograph

Object “Omega Centauri” cluster
Author Robert Knox
Camera G2-8300
Telescope 110mm Borg ED

Object M8 “Lagoon Nebula”
Author Robert Knox
Camera G2-8300 (+ Hα)
Telescope 110mm Borg ED

Object Eta Cariane nebula
Author Robert Knox
Camera G2-8300 (+ Hα)
Telescope 110mm Borg ED

Object M106
Author Martin Myslivec
Camera G2-8300
Telescope 185mm f/3.9 astrograph

Object M42 Orion Nebula
Author Samuele Gasparini
Camera G2-4000
Telescope SkyWatcher 80ED + 0.85 flattener

Object SH2 155
Author Marco Burali
Camera G2-4000 (Hα + OIII + RGB)
Telescope BRC 250 F5

Object NGC2903
Author Marco Burali
Camera G2-4000
Telescope Takahashi TOA 150 F7

Object Virgo Galaxy Cluster
Author Marco Burali
Camera G2-4000
Telescope Takahashi TOA 150 F7

Object NGC7380
Author Marco Burali
Camera G2-4000
Telescope Takahashi TOA 150 F7

Object IC1805
Author Marco Burali
Camera G2-4000
Telescope Takahashi TOA 150 F7

Object NGC884 a NGC869
Author Marco Burali
Camera G2-4000
Telescope Takahashi TOA 150 F7

Object Gama Cygni
Author Marco Burali
Camera G2-4000
Telescope Takahashi TOA 150 F7

G2-0402, G2-1600 and G2-3200 Image Gallery

G2 CCD cameras with KAF detectors are primarily intended for research work. They are only occasionally used for “aesthetics astrophotography”. Following examples represent both science observations and astrophotography images.

Astronomy research

G2 cameras are appreciated by both professional researchers and amateur astronomers involved in scientific observations. Here are only a few examples, chosen from huge amount of observations, be it extragalactic novae discovery, minor planet photometry and astrometry, variable star discovery and regular observations, exoplanet transit observations etc.

Object WASP 12b exoplanet transit observation
Author Pavel Cagas
Camera G2-3200
Telescope 250mm f/5.4 reflector

Only 0.8mmag RMS difference from ideal light cure

Object Two new novae in M81 galaxy discovered within three days
Author Pavel and Petr Cagas, Vaclav Pribik
Camera G2-3200
Telescope 265mm f/8 reflector

This discovery is a record in the size of telescope, used to discover nova in M81. The second smallest has 750mm diameter.

Object New discovery of HADS (High Amplitude Delta Scuti) variable star
Author Vaclav Pribik
Camera G2-1600
Telescope 254mm f/4.7 reflector

Object 5 new variable stars discovered during HAT-P 20b exoplanet transit observations
Author Vaclav Pribik
Camera G2-1600
Telescope 254mm f/4.7 reflector

Object 9 novae in M31 galaxy
Author Kamil Hornoch
Camera G2-3200
Telescope 650mm f/3.6 reflector

Object Minor planet 2007/TU24 passing close to Earth
Author Peter Kusnirak
Camera G2-3200
Telescope 650mm f/3.6 reflector

Microscopy and material science

Object Solar cell sample visible light
Author Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology
Camera G2-3200

Object Solar cell sample near IR, conductive direction
Author Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology
Camera G2-3200

Object Solar cell sample near IR, micro-plasmas in barrier direction
Author Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology
Camera G2-3200

Near-IR radiation of semiconductor (solar cell) samples

Object Palladium layer on the tungsten sample covered by tungsten oxide
Author J. Heyrovsk Institute of Physical Chemistry
Camera G2-0402

Field emission microscope images, camera field of view is 800nm (1.5nm/pixel).

Astrophotography

Object M57 "Ring" nebula
Author Pavel Cagas
Camera G2-3200
Telescope 265mm f/8 Newtonian

Object M27 "Dumbbell" nebula
Author Pavel Cagas
Camera G2-3200
Telescope 265mm f/8 Newtonian

Object M101 galaxy
Author Martin Myslivec
Camera G2-3200
Telescope 185mm f/3.9 astrograph

Object M66 galaxy
Author Pavel Cagas
Camera G2-1600
Telescope 265mm f/8 Newtonian

Object Comet "Holmes"
Author Pavel Cagas
Camera G2-1600
Telescope 265mm f/8 Newtonian

Object Globular cluster M13
Author Pavel and Petr Cagas
Camera G2-3200
Telescope 265mm f/8 Newtonian

Object M81 "Boode galaxy"
Author Pavel and Petr Cagas, Vaclav Pribik
Camera G2-3200
Telescope 265mm f/8 Newtonian

Object M16 "Eagle nebula"
Author Pavel and Petr Cagas
Camera G2-3200
Telescope 265mm f/8 Newtonian

Object M51 "Whirlpool galaxy"
Author Pavel and Petr Cagas
Camera G2-3200
Telescope 265mm f/8 Newtonian

Object M1 "Crab nebula"
Author Pavel Cagas
Camera G2-3200
Telescope 265mm f/8 Newtonian

All images published with permission of their respective authors.

 
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